Saturday, August 8, 2009

Memory Worksheet (PSY360)

1. What is primary memory? What are the characteristics of primary memory?
Primary memory is more commonly known as short-term memory. Primary memory is the workstation where information is temporarily encoded, manipulated, and either forgotten or passed on to secondary memory. According to many of the studies cited in the text the capacity of primary memory is between 5 and 9 units depending on the type of unit and individual in question (Willingham, 2007). It appears that primary memory is limited to 2 seconds of acoustic code and four visuospatial objects. However, the capacity of semantic-based memory is more flexible because of the mediating effect of chunking. Chunking appears to increase the capacity of primary memory because secondary memory encodes through semantics. Primary memory is temporary because interference and decay act to mediate what is actually contained in primary memory at any one time. Interference entails the effect that future or past memories have on the current information contained in primary memory. Decay is the mechanism of primary memory that most limits its capacity and is necessary in order to keep attention focused on temporal, relevant information.

2. What is the process of memory from perception to retrieval? What happens when the process is compromised?
The working memory model seemed over-complex to me. I thought that the modal model of memory worked much better for the practical application of the path that information takes through the cognitive path of memory. Basically, sensory memory has a very large capacity but decays quickly as well. It is clear from several studies that both iconic (visuospatial and semantic) memory and echoic (auditory) memory exist within the framework of sensory and memory and have a duration of between 500 ms and 1 s. Attention and semantics determine which sensory memories are actively brought into primary memory (awareness). Once in primary memory the information can be manipulated, encoded to secondary memory, or forgotten through the mechanisms of interference and decay. If rehearsal occurs or if the information in primary memory is found to be semantically relevant to information already in secondary memory, then the information is recorded into secondary memory. It is also important to note that attention and semantics in sensory memory, primary memory, and secondary are all mediated by pre-existing information already encoded in secondary memory.

3. Is it possible for memory retrieval to be unreliable? Why or why not? What factors may affect the reliability of one’s memory?
Memory retrieval can be incredibly unreliable at times, especially memory concerning periphery information, rather than central information. It is clear that cueing is paramount in memory retrieval, whether it is contextual cueing, situational cueing, or locality cueing. For instance, retrieval is more successful when you are trying to remember something in the same physical place that the memory was encoded, or conversely in the same situation or in the same context. Furthermore, it is clear that recognition is much more successful than recall in memory retrieval. This is partially due to the semantic means by which information is stored in secondary memory. Through cues we can take advantage of related semantics of any given object or thought and therefore recognize the object. It is clear that retrieval gets a big boost when we remember the object/thought in question the same way that we encoded the object/thought. When we use recall as a means of remembering we are trying to retrieve information without cues, other than the cues in the surrounding environment (i.e. same place, same person, etc…). Without the benefit of semantic cues, such as the link between a chair and a table, we are left to recall the memory individually.

Willingham, D. T. (2007). Cognition: The thinking animal. New York, NY: Pearson
Prentice Hall.

22 comments:

Schneider said...

You are way so smart.
I struggled with this worksheet. I think I was making it way harder than it was. I was taking small parts of the text and overanalizing.
After reading your worksheet I was able to stand back and look at the whole picture and it was making mores sense.

From one phoenix to another,
Thanks for the help
Schneider, K

Anonymous said...

Hello Cory,

Great job on all of your work at U of P.
I thoroughly enjoyed reading it and getting some ideas to help me along with PSY/360.

Anonymous said...

Cory,
Thank you so much for your posting, with it I was able to understand my assignment a lot better.

Anonymous said...

Why are you letting people potentiatlly copy your hard work?
Wouldn't you want this to be private as something you could look bad on.. instead for everyone else to cheat off of.

Coy Stoker said...

There is always the risk that someone will copy verbatim an entire section of my work; however, the benefits to those who use my papers as a guide-stone far outweigh the few who will cheat off of my work. How did you use my paper? Probably the same way that most people use my papers. There is an unwritten contract of sorts between me and the readers of my blog: "I will post my work and they will use it, not copy it, but use it to help them with their papers." There is always the potential for someone to break their end of the contract, but that is life, then isn't it. What are your thoughts...

ambs said...

Your blog is very helpful. I have found some of my assignments difficult to grasp but having found your blog has allowed me to realize I am usually understanding it better then I thought. It is like having someone to discuss my experience or understanding of my assignments with. Sometimes I am right on track and other times by previewing your blog I am able to get a better understanding. (Ignor the haters and know that you are helping many students take in more from their assignments then providing opportunity for cheaters. If a person is going to cheat they will find a way to do so with or without this blog.) Thanks!!!

Noor said...

Your worksheet helped to explain exactly what I was looking for. No copying intended to be done. I value my GPA and not getting booted out for plagiarism lol

Lori Bokanoski said...

Hi Cody, I am also attending UOP. I have to thank you for the information on your blogs. I was having problems with this worksheet and you gave me a better understanding of the subject matter. I am grateful that I stumbled upon your blogs.

Anonymous said...

Hi Cory, Reading your work helps me have a much better understanding of the assignment, thank you again

Peter said...

Can write in English next time? LOL

Anonymous said...

Thanks so much for sharing this info. from one Phoenix to another.

Anonymous said...

I have followed you for about a year Coy, and you really helped me on this worksheet! I was a little lost, I think sometimes I make things very difficult when they really aren't! you helped me step back and see that it was really a lot easier than I thought! Great post and appreciate the insight you offer! Thanks!

Anonymous said...

Hello!
I check out your work every week with my assignments. However, thats what I do, I check my work. I like double checking that I really am doing the work right and understood the question. Those who take this as a source of cheating are just plain dumb. Thanks for the help!!

Anonymous said...

The book was a little hazy on primary memory and secondary memory. After I finished the assignment I searched the internet to double-check what I stated about primary memory and secondary memory was in fact correct. I had primary as long-term memory and secondary memory as short-term memory. Good thing I came across this website.

Anonymous said...

I believe if the information is posted without the questions it would be just as useful. With the accusations of plagiarism from even miscited material it may be safer for students to just state the topic-at-hand instead of posting the question as well.

Anonymous said...

You are awesome! Thank you so much for helping me and others further understand our assignments.

Brandi Artis said...

Great idea to help other Phoenix's out. And since our school takes pride in never plagiarize , i don't see why there aren't more like you who post their assignments!! Thanks for the guidance, Im defiantly finding this blog again in the future!

Anonymous said...

Hey cory hows it going? Thank you for supporting your fellow phoenix's. I know that having original work is the foundation of UOP and I truly feel that unless you are literally copying the entire paragraph or not citing and giving credit to your work what you are doing is merely giving us guidance to write our own points with the help of our experiences in UOP. Take care and will definitely seek your advice again.

Anonymous said...

and by our experiences I meant to say your experiences lol sorry graveyard shift and homework dont mix.

rachel w said...

Thank you so much for posting this. I was having such a hard time with memory, but with your help I was able to find the same sections you used in the text and re-read it. It made it so much easier to understand the questions asked.

Anonymous said...

If students are having problems understanding the concepts, it is important to attend class and ask your instructor to explain that which you are having a hard time with.

Tracey said...

Coy, being a mother to five, a Children's author, and FT UOP student, whenever I have found your work, I have used it in my paper, but only after citing it. You put forth the effort, and if anything, you being the person before me, you taught me sources of information and yet, made it possible through your eyes and understanding. I read my books, ask my questions, and still, having a secondary source describe this in a different way is refreshing. Thank you hon, Tracey