Sunday, April 15, 2012

Schizophrenia and Psychosis, and Lifespan Development Matrix (PSY410)

Category

Classification (Disorders)

Behavioral Component

Emotional Component

Cognitive Component

Biological Component

Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence

Mental Retardation

Coded by severity:

Mild

Moderate

Severe

Profound

Mental Retardation, Severity Unspecified.

Learning Disorders

Reading Disorder

Mathematics Disorder

Disorder of Written Expression

Learning Disorder NOS Motor Skills Disorder: Developmental Coordination Disorder Communication Disorders: Expressive Language Disorder, Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder, Phonological Disorder, Stuttering Communication Disorder NOS Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Autistic Disorder Rett’s Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder; Asperger’s Disorder Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder; Feeding and Tic Disorders: Tourette’s Disorder Chronic motor or Vocal Tic Disorder; Transient Tic Disorder Separation Anxiety Disorder Selective Mutism Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood Stereotypic Movement Disorder

Ishijima & Kurita (2007) found that the monozygocity of DSM-IV Asperger’s disorder is at 99.99% in male identical twins; however, comorbidity varied greatly—with the elder exhibiting signs of major depressive disorder and absence seizures in the younger. “The dysfunction in autism seems primarily lodged in the left brain, whereas AD is mainly a right brain dysfunction” (Chapman, Meyer & Weaver, 2009, p. 276).

“lack of social or emotional reciprocity” (BehaveNet clinical capsule, 1996-2010, n.p.).

“Asperger’s disorder differs from autism in that people with Asperger’s disorder have unimpaired and often superior language and cognitive skills” (Hansell & Damour, 2008, p.517).

“marked by impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expressions, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction” (BehaveNet clinical capsule, 1996-2010, n.p.).

Category: Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood

Pica,

Rumination Disorder

Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood 307.59

From a biological perspective rumination entails, “…activities to induce vomiting, such as inserting fingers into their mouth or throat, or by making rhythmic chest, neck, or tongue movements to produce emesis” (Burns, Cotter & Lavigne, 1981, p. 2).

The psychodynamic approach to infant rumination explains that the rumination behavior is the result of marital conflicts or other personality problems with the mother, which cause unusual motility patterns with an infant (Burns, Cotter & Lavigne, 1981, p. 2). “Any such influences disturb the solid, intimate relationship with the infant and contribute to the eruption of rumination” (Burns, Cotter & Lavigne, 1981, p. 2).

The assumption behind a behaviorist-cognitive approach is that, “…the rumination and vomiting are learned habits…[and] they can be unlearned through counter-conditioning” (Burns, Cotter & Lavigne, 1981, p. 3).

“Repeated regurgitation and rechewing of food for a period of at least 1 month following a period of normal functioning (BehaveNet clinical capsule, 1996-2010, n.p.).

Adolescent Only Disorders

Disruptive Behavior Disorders:

Conduct Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

“ODD is more common in males than in females and shows a relatively high degree of stability over development” (Turgay, 2009, p. 3).

“often loses temper…is often angry and resentful…is often spiteful or vindictive” (BehaveNet clinical capsule, 1996-2010, n.p.). “Certain adolescents are unable to effect a logical or objective break from their earlier emotional bonds with parents” (Chapman, Meyer & Weaver, 2009, p. 285).

A few implicated variables in the course of ODD include the adolescent struggle for autonomy, identity formation in teenagers, and renegotiation of relationships with parents (Chapman, Meyer & Weaver, 2009).

“A pattern of negativist, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months” (BehaveNet clinical capsule, 1996-2010, n.p.).

Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and other Cognitive Disorders

Dementia Disorders:

Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type;

Vascular Dementia;

Dementia Due to Other General Medical Conditions;

Substance-Induced Persisting Dementia;

Dementia Due to Multiple Etiologies

“The risk of AACD and AD increased with age, feminine gender and history of stroke and decreased with education…The allele ApoE4 increased the risk of AD but not of AACD” (Abraira et. al., 2008, p. 179).

“Changes in emotional status are evident as well, as bouts of depression, lability (fluctuating mood states), and heightened irritability become increasingly frequent” (Chapman, Meyer & Weaver, 2009, p. 305).

Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type entails, “…cognitive deficits manifested by…memory impairment…[and/or] aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and disturbance in executive functioning (i.e., planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting)” (BehaveNet clinical capsule, 1996-2010, n.p.).

“Self-care and basic hygiene skills deteriorate, and an almost total dependence on others ensues” (Chapman, Meyer & Weaver, 2009, p. 305).

References

Abraira, V., Ampuero, I., De Yebenes, J.G., Del Ser, T., Garcia-Ribas, G., Ros, R., Royuela, A.

(2008). Rick factors for dementia of Alzheimer type and aging-associated cognitive decline in a Spanish population based sample, and in brains with pathology confirmed Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 14(2), 179-191. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from Academic Search Complete database.

BehaveNet clinical capsule. (1996-2010) APA diagnostic classification: DSM-IV TR. Retrieved February 23, 2010, from http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/dsm4TRclassification.htm

Burns, W.J., Cotter, P.D., Lavigne, J.V. (1981). Rumination in infancy: Recent behavioral approaches. International Journal of Eating disorders, 1(1), 70-82. Retrieved March 13, 2010, from Academic Search Complete database.

Chapman, K., Meyer, R.G., Weaver, C.M. (2009). Case studies in abnormal psychology. New York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.

Turgay, A. (2009). Psychopharmacological treatment of oppositional defiant disorder. CNS

Drugs, 23(1), p. 17. Retrieved March 13, 2010, from Academic OneFile via Gale:http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=uphoenix

Hansell, J. & Damour, L. (2008). Abnormal psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.

Ishijima, M., Kurita, H. (2007). Brief report: Identical male twins concordant for asperger’s disorder. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37(2), 386-389. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from Academic Search Complete database.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

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